Shabbat - (pronounced "Shabbos" in Yiddish) the root means "rest" or "cessation of work." Shabbat begins at sundown on Friday and lasts until sundown on Saturday. All Jewish holidays are sundown to sundown.
Yinafash - "spiritually restored" or "refreshing the soul." From the word Nefesh , soul or spirit.
Kiddush -"sanctification." From the word Kadosh, holy. It is also the root of Kedusha, a portion of the services proclaiming God's holiness, Kidushin, holy matrimony, and Kadish, the memorial prayer that is an acknowledgment of the holiness of God. The short Kiddush recited at Temple after the Shabbat morning service is usually accompanied by an oneg.
Borei Pri HaGafen - (Bless you God) "who created the fruit of the vine." This is the blessing before drinking wine or grape juice. Borei means created. Pri means fruit. Gafen is a grapevine. There are other similar blessings: Borei Pri HaEtz, created the fruit of the tree (fruits); Borei Pri HaAdama, created the fruit of the earth (vegetables); Borei M'Orei HaEsh, created the light of the fire (said in the Havdalah ceremony)
Challah - a rich white bread, usually made with eggs. While most challah is braided, it need not be. On Rosh Hashana it is traditional to eat from a circular challah, symbolizing continuity. Bread machine challah: 1 egg + water = 6 oz, 2 cups flour, 1 Tbsp. margarine, 3 Tbsp. sugar, 1 tsp. salt, 2 tsp. yeast.
Oneg - "pleasure." This usually refers to the light refreshments served after Shabbat services. If kiddush is a solemn ceremony, oneg is a casual party, an opportunity to linger, nosh and shmooz. Nosh and shmooz needn't be defined - they've entered the American lexicon.
Havdalah - "separation" or "distinction." . This brief ceremony, at the end of Shabbat, separates the holiness of Shabbat from the every-day nature of the rest of the week. The traditional Havdalah uses a braided candle, a box of fragrant spices and an overflowing cup of wine. It is sung with the lights turned off so all can see the candlelight. Kiddush is the opening ceremony of Shabbat; Havdalah is the closing ceremony.
Mikvah - a ritual bathhouse.
Cholent - a slow cooked stew with meat, beans, potatoes and other vegetables. Originally left overnight at the bakery to keep hot, it is a traditional Shabbat meal invented for the crock-pot.
Z'mirot - songs based on the texts of prayers and religious poetry.